Grafeno

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Dalamar
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Grafeno

Mensajepor Dalamar » 25 Feb 2013 15:10

Carbon-based graphene was initially discovered in the 1960s but rediscovered by two scientists, Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, in 2004. They started tinkering with it in the lab and created microscopic flakes.

The real catalyst came when the two changed the flakes into extremely thin sheets. They even won the Nobel Prize for Physics for their work with graphene.

They first used scotch tape as part of the graphene manufacturing process, which was extremely impractical.

Now manufacturing entails taking graphite oxide and coating it on a sheet of plastic.
Then it's hit with a laser and oxygenates, which turns it into graphene.

It actually can be made in a DVD drive - the kind you can buy at your local electronics store.

The final product is a material that's one of the strongest and lightest known to man.

Graphene: Revolutionizing the Future

Graphene has been referred to as the 21st century's plastic thanks to its versatility.

It's also inexpensive to produce.

It may also be the heir apparent to silicon chips, according to Bloomberg News.

For years, there have been discussions that graphene could be used tocreate the world's biggest "supercapacitor"; this is an electronic component containing the charge of a battery but a recharge at the speed of a capacitor-or 100 - 1,000 times faster than batteries today.

That's why you could take a gadget that takes hours to charge the battery, but do so in seconds.

How to Invest in Graphene

The European Commission is so intrigued by graphene's possibilities, it recently awarded a $1.35 billion, 10-year research grant to Nokia Corp. (NYSE ADR: NOK) to study its commercial applications. The company will be joined by AirBus and research groups from 17 countries.

Nokia has been working with graphene since 2006.

Chief Technology Officer (CTO) Henry Tirri said to The Register after receiving the grant, "Since then, we have come to identify multiple areas where this material can be applied in modern computing environments. We've done some very promising work so far, but I believe the greatest innovations have yet to be discovered."

The European Commission also hopes graphene will prompt economic growth.

Some analysts believe an inaugural "graphene-intensive" product could hit the marketplace within 18 months. IBM Corp. (NYSE: IBM) and Samsung have also jumped on the graphene bandwagon and they're racing to finish first.

While Europe has been a leader in graphene development, you can't count out the U.S. for this ride.

Along with IBM, other companies are involved with this versatile material.
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Re: Grafeno

Mensajepor Dalamar » 25 Feb 2013 15:12


Lighter than a feather, stronger than steel, a superior electrical conductor to copper: According to its champions, graphene could unlock a new era of super-energy-efficient gadgets, cheap quick-charge batteries, wafer-thin, flexible touchscreen computing, and a sturdier light-weight automobile chassis.

Graphene, which is composed of carbon, is plentiful and relatively cheap to produce, unlike the rare earth metals that currently power smartphones and tablets. It has been called the plastic of the 21st century because of its versatility, even touted as the heir apparent to silicon chips. From a materials standpoint, it does everything but wear a cape and rescue puppies.

So where’s your jet pack? Since 2004, graphene has been stuck in the labs. Until recently, researchers have been able only to create microscopic flakes of the stuff, generating a mountain of patents and academic papers—and exactly zero product breakthroughs.

In recent years researchers figured out how to turn those flakes into sheets, a development that has encouraged the European Commission to make a €1 billion investment in developing the material. Analysts say the first graphene-intensive products should come to market within 18 months, with IBM, Samsung, and Nokia among those racing to be first.

The European Commission’s grant will fund a decade of research and development by leading research institutions and big businesses, including Nokia, Airbus, Philips, and Repsol. Most of the development work will be concentrated in labs and research and development plants in the U.K., Northern Europe, and Scandinavia.

There’s a lot riding on graphene for austerity-stricken Europe. The PC, smartphone, and tablet booms have benefited the U.S. and Asia; Europe has noticeably lagged.

But ever since University of Manchester physicists Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov first isolated graphene in 2004, various European scientists and politicians have proudly claimed it as a victory for the continent. The trick now will be to turn the innovation into jobs.

“It would be disappointing if the fruits of European research were harvested elsewhere,” says Jari Kinaret, one of Europe’s leading graphene researchers, who was instrumental in lobbying the European Commission for the funding bonanza. “That is one of the key motivations for the graphene flagship project.”

Nokia, too, is banking on a future of graphene-intensive products. Since 2009, the handset maker has committed R&D money to the development of flexible electronics made from graphene, says Jani Kivioja, research leader at Nokia Research Center in Cambridge, U.K.

Graphene’s appeal lies in its concentrated strength, transparency, and conducting ability. A sheet one atom in thickness, for example, is all that’s needed to construct the electrical circuitry of chips or photovoltaic cells. In a lab or plant, ultra-thin sheets of graphene are cooked in an oven at about 900 degrees Celsius, a lower forging temperature than most varieties of steel require. Graphene can be mined or made in a lab, “but just about anything that contains carbon can be used to make graphene. Even chocolate has been used, just to show it can be done,” says Kinaret.

With funding in place, the European flagship research consortium will focus on developing flexible technologies, such as e-paper; this is of particular interest to Nokia and Philips. New types of solar panels and batteries made of graphene are also a priority, Kinaret says. “For batteries, you need an electrode with a large surface area, and graphene seems to be the ideal material for that. There, we see a lot of potential. These batteries would charge quickly. You can see how the owners of an electric car would like that.”

With the European Commission making such a high-profile investment, the pressure is on for Kinaret and the flagship’s 136 researchers to deliver a breakthrough. Nokia’s Kivioja understands the stakes are high: “This is the challenge we have in Europe. We have to commercialize the work being done in the labs.”
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Re: Grafeno

Mensajepor Dalamar » 06 Mar 2013 15:02

Doctors will soon use it to create implants that will end brain disease...

Technologists will use it to take the power of 1,000 mainframe computers and hardwire it into your smartphone ...

And biotechnologists will use this very same substance to work as "synthetic blood."


Team members simply glued a layer of plastic onto the surface of a DVD. Then they coated it with a layer of a substance known as graphite oxide that is used to synthesize graphene.

The new devices offer another big advantage: They're easy to bend and twist. Ultimately, that means they could work for energy storage in flexible electronics like roll-up TV screens and e-readers.

Even "wearable" electronic devices become possible.


A recent discovery at the University of California at Los Angeles -- is a double win for the new material ... and for the entire electronics sector. You see, a research team there devised tiny devices that can charge and discharge power up to 1,000 times faster than standard batteries.

Because of the proliferation of batteries in portable electronics, this breakthrough could have a huge impact: It could affect everything from smartphones to cardiology pacemakers.

The technical term for this new gadget is "micro super-capacitor." And the name says it all: The devices are small, but extremely powerful.


"Our discovery shows that it is possible to produce large sheets of graphene where these flakes, called "domains,' are well-aligned," said team leader Nicole Grobert. This, she said "will create a neater, stronger, and more "electron-friendly' material."

Northern Graphite Corp. (OTC: NGPHF/TSX.V: NGC).

In Europe: Flinders Resources Ltd. (TSX.V: FDR/ OTC: FLNXF). Flinders was founded by two of the world's top rare-earths experts.

Another company to consider is GrafTech International Ltd. (NYSE: GTI).
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Re: Grafeno

Mensajepor Dalamar » 09 Mar 2013 19:09

Además de para crear teléfonos móviles plegables y aeronaves más ligeras, el grafeno podría servir para destilar alcohol. Es la nueva utilidad que le han encontrado científicos de la Universidad de Manchestera este revolucionario material -el más delgado y, a la vez, el más fuerte y dúctil conocido en el mundo- . En un artículo que publica la revista Science en su última edición, el profesor Andre Geim muestra que las membranas basadas en óxido de grafeno son impermables a todos los gases y líquidos, pero que e agua se evapora a través de ellas rápidamente. Los investigadores aseguran que para el experimento sellaron una botella de vodka con la membrana "solo para divertirse". Y comprobaron que, en efecto, "la solución destilada se volvió más y más fuerte con el tiempo".

"No podemos ni imaginar qué otras sorpresas nos depara el grafeno" asegura Geim. "Esta capacidad de dejar que solamente el agua se evapore es única y puede ser usada en diferentes situaciones", sugiere. Las membranas empleadas son cientos de veces más delgadas que un cabello humano, pero más fuertes y flexibles.
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Re: Grafeno

Mensajepor Dalamar » 17 Mar 2013 14:50

Lo del premio nobel no me lo sabia:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graphene
There is an analog of graphene composed of silicon called silicene. The Nobel Prize in Physics for 2010 was awarded to Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov ...
I remembered reading about the Nobel Prize that was awarded for graphene and being fascinated by it. Thanks to my years of researching high-tech materials, I very quickly realized this substance had an immense potential. The more I researched, the more I became convinced that this was a material with the potential to change basically any industry you could think of.

About that same time, I had a long conversation with my father-in-law about this miracle material. He had a doctorate in chemistry and did cold-temperature physics research at the University of California at Berkeley for 40 years. He told me that the materials scientists and related experts around the world were getting heavily involved in the field. See, the two guys who discovered graphene won the Nobel in only seven years, which is almost unheard of. That, my father-in-law told me, really got the whole field extremely excited about researching the many possible new uses for this unusual substance.
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girado007
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Re: Grafeno

Mensajepor girado007 » 29 Mar 2013 16:01

Los Chinos ya andan dándole vueltas :shock:

http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/ ... lower.html
Adjuntos
article-2296223-18C7E374000005DC-990_634x571.jpg

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Re: Grafeno

Mensajepor Dalamar » 30 Mar 2013 05:24

Muy interesante, han ganado el premio nobel hummm,

The sponge-like matter is made of freeze-dried carbon and graphene oxide and is the lightest solid material in the world.

That makes it the thinnest material ever made. You would need to stack three million graphene sheets on top of each other to get a pile one milimetre high.

But this unique structure makes it very light and strong, with a one-square-metre sheet weighing only 0.77 milligrams - yet strong enough to support the weight of a 4kg adult cat.

A sheet of graphene as thin as clingfilm could hold the weight of an elephant. According to one calculation, an Nelly would need to balance precariously on the end of a pencil to break through that same sheet.

Despite its strength, it is also extremely flexible and can be stretched by 20 per cent without any damage, and it's almost transparent.

It is also a superb conductor of electricity — far better than copper, traditionally used for wiring — and is the best conductor of heat on the planet.
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Re: Grafeno

Mensajepor Dalamar » 30 Mar 2013 05:25

Professors Geim and Novoselov serendipitously discovered graphene almost by accident while investigating the electrical properties of carbon graphite - the common material that pencils are made of.

Borrowing a technique used by microscopy researchers to clean the mineral before examining it close up, they found they could peel it into ever thinner flakes using Scotch tape.

After repeatedly sticking and peeling back the Scotch tape they realised they could get down to the thinnest layer physically possible - just one atom thick.

They then attached it to a silicon plate which allowed them to identify its tiny layers through a microscope.

Professors Andre Geim (left) and Kostya Novoselov: Discovering graphene in the course of research at Manchester University earned the pair a joint Nobel prize in physics and a knighthood each

Graphene's discovery has triggered a boom for material science, with its potential applications appearing almost limitless.

But most important of all, its core constituent, carbon, is the basic element of life, which means graphene could spur a new industrial revolution based on components that are biodegradable and sustainable.

‘We are talking of a number of unique properties combined in one material which probably hasn’t happened before,’ said Professor Novoselov in 2011.

‘You might want to compare it to plastic. But graphene is as versatile as all the plastics put together.

‘It’s a big claim, but it’s not bold. That’s exactly why there are so many researchers working on it.’
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Re: Grafeno

Mensajepor Dalamar » 31 Ago 2013 16:48

This past spring, scientists at Singapore's Nanyang Technological University (NTU) revealed how they employed graphene as the basis for a novel image sensor. According to reports, the resultant device is said to be:

1,000 times more sensitive to light than current commercially available sensors.
Capable of detecting a wider spectrum of light.
Able to function using 10 times less energy.
Five times cheaper than current sensors, if mass produced.

"We have shown that it is now possible to create cheap, sensitive, and flexible photo sensors from graphene alone," said Assistant Prof. Wang Qijie, from NTU's School of Electrical & Electronic Engineering. "We expect our innovation will have great impact not only on the consumer imaging industry, but also in satellite imaging and communication industries, as well as the mid-infrared applications. While designing this sensor, we have kept current manufacturing practices in mind. This means the industry can, in principle, continue producing camera sensors using the CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) process, which is the prevailing technology used by the majority of factories in the electronics industry. Therefore, manufacturers can easily replace the current base material of photo sensors with our new nano-structured graphene material."

If such a sensor were available commercially, it would provide a major boost in image quality to digital consumer and professional cameras, to satellite imaging, and even to those pesky traffic cameras that most of us hate.
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Grafeno

Mensajepor Dalamar » 31 Ago 2013 16:49

A group of researchers at the University of California at Riverside may have solved a problem that was keeping graphene from being used as a replacement for silicon in semiconductors. By developing a way for graphene to work in a transistor - a basic element in an integrated circuit - the researchers say they've created "a system that dramatically outperforms silicon."

Indeed, those researchers say the performance is "several orders of magnitude higher than for any reported or even projected scaled circuits.'"

In recent years, microchip scientists have been looking hard at the potential for processing-power growth, and have been quite concerned that the upper boundaries as represented by "Moore's Law" may be close at hand.

Moore's Law, named for Intel Corp. (Nasdaq: INTC) co-founder Gordon E. Moore (who described the relationship in a 1965 research paper), holds that, over the history of digital computer hardware, the number of transistors on an integrated circuit (microchip) doubles roughly every two years. (Intel executive David House modified - augmented - the theory by stating that chip performance would then double every 18 months, thanks to the additional transistors and the leveraged speed they provided.)

Graphene is amazingly "conductive" - so much so, in fact, that a graphene-based transistor was clocked at 427 GHz.

If you had a graphene-based microprocessor running at that speed, it would be 300 times faster than the 1.3 GHz microchip that runs an 11-inch MacBook¸ Grobart wrote.

But there's a problem: Because graphene is so conductive, you can't turn it off. And that on/off capability is what a semiconductor is all about. But the University of California researchers believe they've created a "workaround," or fix - a kind of "On/Off switch" that gets around this obstacle.

If they've succeeded as they say, we'll enter a whole new era in information technology and consumer devices. In a dramatic bit of understatement, the researchers wrote that they have created a potential "alternative route for graphene's applications in information processing."
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